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In intensive shrimp culture, the computed daily feed ration is given in equal doses from as low as three to as high as six times a day.
Water change is also effected on a daily basis, with approximately 10-15% of the water in the pond replenished by the entry of new water in semi-intensive shrimp ponds.
Brackishwater: salinization/acidification of soils/aquifers. Both: market competition, especially for export produce; feed and fertilizer availability/prices; conflicts/failures, social disruption.
As freshwater above, plus possible consumer resistance to excreta-fed produce; competition from other users of inputs such as livestock excreta and cereal brans; toxic substances in livestock feeds (e.g., heavy metals) may accumulate in pond sediments and fish; pesticides may accumulate in fish.
It began in China, possibly due to the desires of an emperor to have a constant supply of fish.
Production is of course much higher (for example, ranging from a minimum of 1.5 t/ha/crop from semi-intensive shrimp culture to a high of 10 t/ha/crop from intensive shrimp culture).Financial returns are therefore much more attractive than those from extensive culture, although studies have shown that the return on investment (ROI) from semi-intensive culture is better than from intensive culture due to the high cost of inputs (largely fry and feeds) used in intensive culture.A summary of the comparative features among these three main types of culture systems is shown in Table 7.Another possibility is that aquaculture developed from ancient practices for trapping fish, with the operations steadily improving from trapping-holding to trapping-holding-growing, and finally into complete husbandry practices (Ling, 1977). Possible environmental Impacts of aquaculture Public health risks and consumer resistance (microbial diseases, red tides, industrial pollution; rough weather losses; seed shortages; market competition especially for export produce; failures, social disruption.Freshwater: health risks to farm workers from waterborne diseases.